THE TYPES OF  THE SPIRIT AND HIS WORK IN THE OLD TESTAMENT

     The Person of  the Holy Spirit and His Deity in  Part 1 of  the Holy Spirit has been discussed.  On this web page there will a consideration of  the various types of  the Holy Spirit and His work in the Old Testament.

THE TYPES OF  THE HOLY SPIRIT

     In discussing the types of  the Holy Spirit, there must be a a general discussion of  types before the specific types are examined.

1. General considerations.  First of all, there will be a discussion of  the meaning of  types and then will present some cautions.  This section somewhat duplicates what was presented in connection with types of  God the Father, types of  the Son, and other types.
     a. The definition.  In considering the definition , it needs to be presented negatively and positively.
          1) What a type is not.  A type is not a metaphor; for example, "I am the door."  It is not a simile; for example:  "All we like sheep have gone astray."  It is not an allegory such as Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress.
          2) What a type is.  A type is a real person, a real event, or a real thing which pictures something else and finds its fulfillment in the antitype.  This is in contrast to a symbol which may not have any reality other than what it symbolizes. Often the terms are used interchangeably, but they are not the same.  Types are not to be used to establish a doctrine; they only illustrate and enrich the doctrine by picturing it.
     b. The care.  Care must be taken in using types.  As already stated, they do not establish a doctrine.  Some people would limit types only to expressed ones.  That types are subject to misuse and often have been is doubtlessly true.  But such limits would prevent the use of  many clear examples of  types.  On the other hand, trying to find types under every rock, so to speak, must be avoid .

2. Specific considerations.  In this section, specific types will be examined.  This writer does not expect agreement with him on every type here presented.
     a. The dove.  This type is probably one of  the first to come to mind when one thinks of  symbols of  the Holy Spirit (This type has been used as a picture on these web pages.).  The specific verses are all in the New Testament and confined to the four gospels.  Matthew 3:16 states:  "And Jesus, when He was baptized, went up straightway out of  the water; and lo the heavens were opened unto Him, and he saw the Spirit of  God descending like a dove and lighting upon Him."  Mark 1:10 and Luke 3:22 use similar language.  John 1:32 reads, "And John bare record saying, 'I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon Him.'"  The term "like" is used here which makes it basically a simile; however, the typology here is clearly evident since the dove is picturing the Holy Spirit.  It may well be that the releasing of  the dove by Noah was a type of  the Holy Spirit.
     b. Oil.  Many are the examples of  oil in the Old Testament that would serve as types of  the Spirit.
          Leviticus 2:1-16 describes the meal offering which has oil mingled with the fine flour and also had oil poured on it. This typifies the Lord Jesus Christ in that He during His life here on earth was empowered and sustained by the Holy Spirit; the pouring of  oil on the meal would typify the Holy Spirit coming upon Christ at His baptism.
          Leviticus 14:10-32 tells of  the cleansing of  the leper required oil to be placed on the tip of  his ear, the thumb of  his right hand, and the right big toe.  It was also poured on the blood of  the sacrifice.  It is the Holy Spirit that is active in the cleansing that comes with regeneration (cf. Titus 3:5) .
          Oil was used in the lampstand in the holy place.  It was the oil that produced the light in the lampstand.  Similarly, the Holy Spirit illumines believers and produces the light of  the gospel in their hearts and minds; also, through us, the light of the gospel shines to others.  Psalm 45:7 speaks of  the "Oil of  gladness" which represents the joy of  the Spirit that should shine in each life.
          New Testament references are few and most of  them carry an Old Testament flavor. Matthew 25:3-8 probably is the most well remembered story concerning oil.  The story is about ten virgins, five of  them were wise and five, foolish.  The five wise ones had adequate oil supply;  the foolish did not.  The symbolism here is clear; the five wise virgins had the Holy Spirit; the five foolish did not.  What the virgins represent is not a concerned here.
          James 5:14 speaks of  the anointing of the sick person  by the elders of  the church.  Dr. Harold B. Sightler clearly stated, "The Holy Spirit is a Healer, and the oil is a type and symbol of  the blessed Holy Spirit who is God's agent.  We anoint the sick man with oil and as a recognition on our part that the Holy Spirit is indeed the Healer." (Hebrews and James, Greenville, SC:  Tabernacle Baptist Church, 214)
         Dr. Chafer made this interesting observation:  "As oil was used for healing, for comfort, for illumination, and for anointing unto specific purposes, so the Holy Spirit heals, comforts, illuminates, and consecrates." (Chafer, Systematic Theology, VI:47).  Oil is used for other purposes, also, such as to indicate holiness; the Holy Spirit is the Giver of  holiness in our lives
     c. Water.  Most people don't often think  of water as being a type of  the Holy Spirit.  It will be seen, however, shortly that it is.
          1) General statements.  Water has been used to set forth judgment.  The Genesis flood was a judgment against the whole world (It was anything but a local flood.).  God used the Red Sea as a judgment on Pharoah's army.  In Matthew 7:25 judgment of one's soul is pictured as a flood overthrowing the house built on sand. Secondly, water is used as a symbol of  the Word of  God, the Bible.  John 3:5 sets forth this idea (This writer fully realize that some teach this to mean something else; he believes it refers to the water of  the Word.).  Titus 3:5 sets forth a similar notion. 1 John 5:6, 8 seems to this writer to refer to the Word.
          2) Pictures the Holy Spirit.   John 4:14 (including the context) is in the story of  the woman in Samaria at the well. Here the living water that Jesus speaks of  is the Holy Spirit.  In John 7:37-39, the Lord speaks to the spiritually thirsty to come to Him and drink.  Then He states that if  one believes on Him, "out of  his belly [his innermost being] shall flow rivers of  living water." John by inspiration comments, "But this spake He of  the Spirit, which they that believe on Him should receive; for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified." Clearly, therefore, this passage speaks of  water as a symbol of  the Holy Spirit.  Even water baptism can be symbolic of  the Holy Spirit (Cf. 1 Corinthians 12:13 with Ephesians 4:5).  The complete one time bath of  the high priest (Cf. Exodus 29:4 and Leviticus 8:6) is typical of  the one time washing of  regeneration of  the New Testament believer spoken of  in Titus 3:5.  That verse involves the Holy Spirit.  Then, there is the cleansing provided by the sacrifice and ashes of  the red heifer set forth in Numbers 19:2ff. which is typical of  the cleansing believers have in Christ; but note that the cleansing takes place over running water which would typify the Holy Spirit.
     d. Fire.  Again, in considering this type there is the fact that it is used of  symbolically of  many things.
          1) General considerations.  One person has well said, "Fire is used in Scripture in many typical senses just as other figures frequently have more than one application." (Walvoord, Op. cit., 20)  The classic work on symbols and types is F. E. Marsh, Emblems of the Holy Spirit.  He gives six uses of  the word fire which do not refer to the Holy Spirit.  In Exodus 3:2, fire symbolizes God's presence.  In Hebrews 12:29, one reads, "Our God is a consuming fire."  Time will not be take to list others.
          2) Specific use of  fire.  Fire is used as a picture of  the Holy Spirit.  Acts 2:3 states, "And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of  them." The next verse indicates that  they were filled with the Holy Spirit.  It does not explain here or elsewhere what these cloven tongues like as fire were.  Dr. Walvoord well states, what this writer thinks, was their purpose:  "Judging by previous usage [in the Scriptures, that is], the appearance of  fire carried with it the thought of  the Lord's presence, approval, protection, and cleansing and sanctifying for the ministry before them." (Ibid., 21)
     e. Wind.  Here again, some general remarks are made about this subject followed by the specifics.
          1) General considerations.  Wind is an appropriate symbol of  the Holy Spirit.  Both are powerful; both are invisible; both are immaterial (wind is the moment of air, but it is the result of  immaterial forces).  The word for "wind" and "Spirit" are the same in both Hebrew and Greek; the context, of  course, tells what is meant.  Wind is many times mentioned in the Bible as a natural phenomenon from its first occurrence in Genesis 8:1 to the last in Revelation 7:1.  Some of these may well be a type of  the Spirit.
          2) Specific verses.  John 3:8 states, "The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth; so is every one that is born of  the Spirit."  Wind here illustrates the work of the Holy Spirit in the new birth.
               Acts 2:1, 2 tells us:  "And when the day of  Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. And suddenly there came a sound from heave as a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where there were sitting." In verse four it is said that they were filled by the Holy Spirit.  The connection between the wind and the Holy Spirit is certainly clear.
               2 Peter 1:21, in connection with inspiration, states that the writers were "moved by the Holy Spirit."  The word moved literally means "driven" as a ship by the wind; thus, we have a good illustration of  this symbol though the word wind is not actually used.
     f. Servant.  The Holy Spirit serves in a servant capacity in the life of  believers.  This is no way belittling or demeaning the Holy Spirit.  His actions, however, are often servant-like.  The classical illustration of  this servanthood of  the Spirit is Abraham's servant.  The parallel between that servant and the Holy Spirit are too obvious  to doubt that  the servant is a type  of  the Holy Spirit.  As the servant seeks a bride for Isaac, the beloved son of  Abraham, so the Holy Spirit seeks  a bride for the Lord Jesus Christ, God's beloved Son.  Space does not allow mention of  other details of  this story that are typical of  the Holy Spirit which would be a message in itself.
     g. The seal.  The seal in view here is not, of  course, the animal.  Documents in the New Testament times were sealed by some wax in which a ring or other device of  the one making the document was pressed.
          Three passages speaks of  the seal in regards to the Holy Spirit.  2 Corinthians 1:22 says, "Who [God] has sealed us, and given the earnest of  the Spirit in our hearts."  Notice that it is God Who seals us.  The word earnest is discussed below.  Ephesians 1:13 states,  "In Whom [Christ] ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of  truth, the gospel of  your salvation; in Whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with the Holy Spirit of  promise." Finally, Ephesians 4:30 exhorts us, "And grieve not the Holy Spirit of  God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of  redemption."
          Whether or not those  who oppose eternal security  want to admit it,  these verses show  that the seal teaches the security of  the believer.  The seal gives the believer safety.  The seal shows ownership of  the believer by God, the One Who seals (Cf. 2 Corinthians 1:22).  The seal signifies the completed transaction that God made concerning our salvation. The seal is the mark of  recognition that the believer belongs to God.  Finally, the seal shows that an obligation is required of  the believer.
     h. The earnest.  Three times this term is used of  the Holy Spirit in the New Testament.  It is not defined except by the very meaning of  the Greek word.  Thayer stated that it is "money which in purchases is given as a pledge that the full amount will subsequently be paid."  (John Henry Thayer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, 75)  Thus, it is the down payment on all that God has promised to us.  2 Corinthians 1:22 was quoted earlier.  2 Corinthians 5:5 speaks of  God, "Who also hath given unto us the earnest of  the Spirit."   Ephesians 1:14 says in part, "Which is the earnest of  our inheritance . . . ."  The word which  refers to the Holy Spirit in verse 13.  All that we have in and through our Lord Jesus Christ is by the agency of  the Holy Spirit.  In fact, He is the earnest, the down payment, of  all the riches of glory by Christ Jesus.
     i. Clothed with power.  The concept of  "clothed with power" is used at least seven times in the New Testament; it does not occur in the Old.  The main verse is Luke 24:49, "And behold, I send forth the promise of  My Father upon you; but tarry ye in the city [Jerusalem], unto ye be clothed with power from on High."  Notice the Trinity is set forth here. Clearly, Jesus was speaking of  the upcoming Pentecostal experience.  This figure suggests first that it is outside of  the person so endued.  It further suggests that it covers human weakness.  The Holy Spirit does both of these:  He comes upon us from outside ourselves, and He covers our weaknesses making us strong and bold when we would of  ourselves be weak and timid.  Finally, notice that this is put on, not by us, but by the Heavenly Father.

     There may be other types of  the Holy Spirit; but we have endeavored to present the main ones.  Each of  these only illustrate the work and person of  the Holy Spirit; they do not teach the truth per se of  the Holy Spirit.

HIS WORK IN THE OLD TESTAMENT

     Several works of the Holy Spirit appear in the Old Testament.  These include His work in creation, His work in revelation, His work in inspiration, and His work in ministering to Old Testament people.

1. Work in creation.  In considering the Holy Spirit's work in creation, there is again need to give some general remarks before looking at specific passages.
     a. General considerations.  A person needs to recognize that one is treading, even as has been stated, on holy ground. The doctrine of  the Holy Spirit's work must of  necessity be related to the sovereign purpose of  God, as must all of doctrine.
          1) Two dangers.  There are two dangers that must be considered  in approaching the work of  the Holy Spirit. "First, we are every prone to interpret Scripture through experience, instead of  interpreting experience through Scripture." (Walvoord, The Holy Spirit, 29)  "A second danger, in the opposite extreme, is to limit the doctrine of  the Holy Spirit to facts accepted by all." (Ibid.)
          2) Four major aspects.   There are four major aspects  of  the work of  the Holy Spirit  that is directly related to salvation.  There is the obedience of  the Holy Spirit which involves the procession of  the Holy Spirit (previously discussed); second, the part the Holy Spirit has in creation and providence which will be soon discussed; third, there is the ministry of  the Holy Spirit to the Second Person, the Lord Jesus Christ--this will be discussed later on a third web page; and lastly, there is the ministry of  the Holy Spirit to the saints.
          3) Two extremes.  There are two extremes of  interpretation that need to be avoided.  One is any attempt to establish the teaching of  creation by one Person of  the Trinity to the exclusion of  the other two.  The second one is any attempt to neglect  the diversity of  the operation of  God in creation.
               Creation is generally attributed to God without special emphasis on any One of  the Trinity; this should be noted. This does not mean that there is no differentiation.
     b. Specific Scriptures.  There are six specific Scriptures regarding the Holy Spirit in relation to creation.  There may be others, but these are the major ones.
          1) Genesis 1:2.  "And the earth was without form and void; and darkness was upon the face of  the deep.  And the Spirit of  God moved upon the face of  the waters."  The word moved  in this verse signifies "a gentle motion like a dove hovering over its nest"; thus, it means "to brood over."  Interestingly, this verse occurs right at the beginning of  the Bible, just after the general statement of  verse one where the word God is a plural word and whose verb is in the singular.
         2) Job 26:13.  "By His Spirit He hath garnished the heavens; His hand hath formed the crooked serpent."  The reference here to "the crooked serpent" is not Satan (although the constellation may be a picture of  the serpent of  Genesis 3), but rather the well-known constellation which is called "Serpens."  Notice that the Holy Spirit garnishes or decorates the heavens; it is He who was responsible in the economy of  the Godhead to set the stars in place in groups known as constellations.  Incidentally, it is useless to argue against constellations on the grounds that from another place in space they would cease to be.  The Bible is from an earth viewpoint; thus, the use of  constellations is legitimate.
          3) Job 33:4.  "The Spirit of  God hath made me, and the breath of  the Almighty hath given me life."  Here the word breath is the same Hebrew word as "Spirit."  This verse clearly shows that, though Elihu was speaking of  himself, the Holy Spirit was directly  involved in creating the first man and giving him life.  The phrase "the breath of  the Almighty hath given me life" immediately makes one think of  Genesis 2:7 which you can read for yourself.
          4) Psalm 33:6.   "By the word of  the Lord were the Heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of  His mouth."  Again the word breath is the same word as the word Spirit in Genesis 1:2, so that the latter part of  the verse could be rendered "Spirit of  His mouth."  It has already been dealt with the fact that the wind or breath is a picture of  the Holy Spirit. Thus, it is clear that the Holy Spirit was active in the making of  the hosts of  heaven as well as the heavens themselves.
          5) Psalm 104:30.  "Thou sendest forth Thy Spirit, they are created; and Thou renewest the face of  the ground."  The word created is the same Hebrew word that is used in Genesis 1:1 and at least two or three more in that chapter.  So, though the context of  our passage here does not indicate the creation in the beginning, the word "created" clearly does. Thus, the Holy Spirit is set forth as involved in the work of  creation.
          6) Isaiah 40:12-14.  "Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of  His hand, and meted out heaven with the span, and comprehended the dust of  the earth in a measure, and weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance? Who hath directed the Spirit of  the Lord, or being His counsellor hast taught Him?  With whom took He counsel, and who instructed Him, and taught Him in the path of  judgment, and taught Him knowledge, and shewed to Him the way of  understanding?"  The Holy Spirit is mentioned in this passage and revealed as Creator by way of  implication.  As one writer well stated, "The Holy Spirit is described as the untaught, uncounselled, and omnipotent God, Who without need of instruction or assistance measured  the waters, the dust of  the earth, and the mountains.  His intimate connection with the plan and management of  the universe is apparent." (Walvoord, Op.cit, 38)
     c. The use of  the word Elohim.  The word Elohim is generally translated "God."  This is a plural word.  Yet, when it is used for the true God, it is always used with the singular verb. Walvoord rightly points out, "Not a single good reason has ever been advanced for not regarding this plural as genuine.  The arguments against it have been Unitarian, Jewish, or from liberal theology." (Ibid.)  The plurality of  this word is the creation passages with the singular verb shows clearly that the Holy Spirit was active in creation.  That this word is used in Genesis 1:1 and the Holy Spirit specifically in Genesis 1:2 was previously pointed out.
     d. The immanence of  the Holy Spirit.  The term "immanence" simply means indwelling or presence.  As already seen from Genesis 1:2, the Holy Spirit was very much present in the creation.  This word also implies that the Godhead, and the Holy Spirit in particular, is actively engaged in His creation now.  It is clearly evident from the Scriptures, however, that God is transcendent as well.  Transcendence has to do with the fact that God is greater than and beyond His creation. This is important in that God is not part of  His creation.  It is likewise important to show forth that He is in control of creation.  This puts the lie to the environmentalists contention that man is destroying our environment.  This immanence of the Spirit shows that He is active in  creation.  This fact goes beyond the primary work of  creation.  His immanence demonstrates  His continuing preservation--as already suggested--of  our universe.  This idea is suggested by Psalm 104:29, 30.  In other words, God did not just wind up creation like a clock (contrary to the Deists) and left it to itself; rather He actively preserves it and holds it together.

2. Work in revelation.  The doctrine of  revelation  has to do  with God making Himself known to mankind.
     a. The extent of  revelation in the Old Testament.  This work of  the Spirit as to revelation in the Old Testament is important because  there was, for part of  the period, no written word of  God.  It extends to everything revealed by God before the coming of  the Lord Jesus Christ.  Revelation here is considered to be that which was given directly apart from written records.  What will be considered next will be referring to God, but this includes, of  course, the Holy Spirit.
     b. The Old Testament prophet.   Generally speaking,  the Old Testament prophet was as much a forthteller as a foreteller.  They were the instrument through whom God revealed truth; and they were not confined to those who were either considered as prophets or who were called prophets.  There are basically seven periods of  the prophets.
          1) Before Abraham.  There were two primary pre-Abrahamic prophets:  Enoch and Noah.  Certainly, God revealed truth to Adam and Eve.  Cain was spoken to directly by God concerning the need of  a blood sacrifice for the remission of sin.  There are no others of  whom we have direct record.  Enoch gave detailed and advanced truth concerning the Lord's return as recorded in Jude 14.  Noah mainly prophesied of  the coming flood.
          2) Prophet Abraham.  Abraham was called a prophet.  God clearly spoke to him as seen in Genesis 20:7 and other passages.  There was no command to speak those messages to others, although he apparently did to his sons.  God also spoke to His son, Isaac, as well as his grandson, Jacob; clearly God spoke to and through Joseph.
          3) Prophet Moses.   Extensive revelation  was given  by God to Moses.  This included  the freeing of  Israel from Egypt, the Law, and the conducting of  Israel through the wilderness.  It included the beginning of  the written revelation, the Scriptures.  He had the distinctive office of  prophet in both its elements of  foretelling and forthtelling.  Furthermore, God spoke to him, not in visions, but "mouth to mouth."
          4) The period of  the judges.   The period of  the judges  was that when men did what was right in their own eyes; much like today, is it not?  Though prophets were rarely mentioned during this period, Deborah is stated to have been a prophetess in Judges 4:4.  An unnamed prophet prepared Gideon for his task as shown in Judges 6:8.  Gideon was spoken to directly by the Lord recorded in Judges 6:12ff.  Several passages given evidence that revelation was given without indicating the method.  Finally, the last judge, who was Samuel, became the first of  the named prophets.
          5) The period of  the early kings.  Samuel is the beginning of  this period.  He made possible two things:  the rise of David and Solomon as kings, and the rise of  the schools of  the prophets as shown by 1 Samuel 19:18-24.  That God spoke through these prophets is evident by any careful reading of  1 and 2 Samuel.  These prophetic utterances dealt primarily with current problems rather than future events.  Thus, theirs was a forthtelling ministry rather than a foretelling ministry.
          6) The pre-exilic and exile prophets.  It was during the time of  pre-exilic as well as those of  the exile that the great prophets who foretold as much as they forthtold.  During this period most of  the prophetic books were written.  These prophets do not need to be named here, but we also mention that others were considered prophets who did not write out their prophecies.
          7) The post-exilic prophets.   The written works of  the post-exilic prophets  are those which constitute the larger portion of the minor prophets.  Besides such as Haggai, Zechariah, etc., there were also the writings of  Ezra and Nehemiah.  Malachi was the last of  these prophets, and he declared the coming Day of  the Lord.  He also set forth the forerunner of Christ, John the Baptist.
     c. The methods of  revelation in the Old Testament.  There were at least four methods that God used in revealing truth to men in Old Testament times.
          1) The spoken word.   The spoken word as a means of  God's revelation has already been mentioned .  This is the most prominent means of  revelation.  The nature of  this speaking by God is clear to this writer.  God spoke in an audible voice on numerous occasions.  Two instances immediately come to mind:  Exodus 19:9 and 1 Samuel 3:1-14.  In these instances, as well as others, God spoke audibly in a human voice with actual words.  The use of  words shows that revelation is verbal, not just mere guidance of  natural reasoning.  God communicated His message in clear unmistakable, accurate terms, by the use of  WORDS.  Someone is sure to say that this was God speaking, but you are dealing with the Holy Spirit's work of  revelation.  First, at the beginning of  this section on the work of  the Holy Spirit  that the term God would be used, but all could and should be applied equally to the Holy Spirit.  Second, by comparing Isaiah 61:1-10 with Acts 28:25 one sees that the Holy Spirit is the Speaker in the Isaiah passage.
          2) Dreams.  This method [dreams] of  revelation  was commonly accepted as a normal way for God to speak." (Walvoord, Op. cit., 51)  Many passages could be cited as evidence of  this fact.  A few passages for your consideration are Genesis 20:3-7; 31:10-13, 24; 40:5-16; and 42:9.  This was the method mostly commonly used by God with those who did not have the office of  prophet, though not exclusively (cf. Daniel 10:9).   
         3) Visions.  Visions and dreams are closely related.  The term "seer" refers to prophets who see visions.  Also, though a vision can  be part of  a dream, generally visions occur during times of  full consciousness.  The vision may or may not be clear to its recipient as to its meaning; if  it involves contemporary problems, then the seer understood it.  Again, no statement as such relates visions to the Holy Spirit, but what was said about the Holy Spirit and dreams can be repeated here.
          4) Trances.  The trance is also closely related to dreams and visions.  The trance often occurred at the same time as visions.  As such a trance did not impart revelation.  It was a supernaturally induced state of  sleep (or near sleep) in which the normal senses of  the person had been suspended.  Thus, trances were often a prelude to visions, setting up the individual to receive the revelation in a vision or by direct communication.

3. Work in inspiration.  The Holy Spirit's work in inspiration is that He is the agent of  inspiration.
     a. Revelation versus inspiration.  The difference between revelation and inspiration has been discussed before (See Revelation). As was discussed there, revelation makes known the truth to the person to whom the material is given; inspiration guarantees the accuracy of  the writing down of  that revelation in the form of  Scriptures.  Thus, revelation has to do with the giving of  truth; inspiration has to do with the recording of  that truth.
     b. Extent of inspiration.  The meaning of  inspiration was discussed on that web page.
          1) The extent of  inspiration  includes  the unknown past.   That past is knowable,  but it  was unknown  until God revealed it.  The Holy Spirit was present during creation, and therefore, could reveal it to us.  Herein lies the fallacy of  much evolutionary thinking; no one was there to reveal it; therefore, it is just so much speculation with the attempt to deny the Creator.
          2) The Law of  Moses was given to him directly by God.  As he wrote down those laws, he did so accurately by inspiration.  The Holy Spirit was involved to the extent that God was.
          3) The devotional literature of  the Old Testament consisting primarily of  the Psalms, Job, Proverbs, and the Song of Solomon.  Inspiration extends not only to the recording of  them, but also to the content.
          4) Again, the same thing can be said of  the prophetic utterances.  Inspiration covers  the telling forth to the problems of  the day but also to the futuristic aspects.
          5) Finally, inspiration extends to the historic portions guaranteeing their accuracy.  It does not make everything said by individuals as truth from God, anymore than the lies of  Satan are true.  It does, however, guarantee the accuracy of  what was said.

4. Work in ministering to Old Testament people.  In this final section of  the work of  the Holy Spirit in the Old Testament, a fourfold work to people is seen.
     a. The ministry to all creation.  The work of  the Holy Spirit in connection with creation itself  has already been discussed.  (Cf. Genesis 1:2 and Job 26:13).  In Genesis 5:3 we find the Spirit striving with mankind.  First of  all, this shows that the Spirit was dealing with mankind right up to the time of  the flood.  Although the passage does explicitly say so, it implies that the Spirit may have been involved  in causing the animals to come to the ark.  There is  no evidence that Noah and his sons collected the animals; rather the record shows they came without human assistance.  The Old Testament (and the Bible as a whole) seems to show that God sustains the life of  all creatures, and thus, the Holy Spirit would be so involved.
     b. The sovereign indwelling of  the Holy Spirit.  The indwelling of  the Holy Spirit is primarily a New Testament matter, wherein the Spirit indwelt every believer permanently.  Old Testament people were indwelt, however, by the Spirit for a specific task.
          In Genesis 41:38 one reads, "Can we find  such a one as this, a man in whom the Spirit of  God is?"  This was spoken of  Joseph by Pharaoh.  Though some may argue that Pharaoh was mistaken, it seems clear to this writer that is what is meant by the question.
          In Exodus 28:3 one finds, "And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise hearted, whom I have filled with the Spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garments to consecrate him, that he may minister unto Me in the priest's office." Clearly these men were indwelt by the Holy Spirit for this particular task.  It can not be argued that this was only a natural ability; if  there was any native talent, it was greatly enhanced by the filling of  the Spirit.  The same can be said of  Bezaleel and Aholiab and other craftmen who built the tabernacle, as recorded in Exodus 31:3 (Also see Exodus 35:30-35).
          Numbers 11:17, 25 records the fact that the Lord came down and spake to Moses taking of  the Spirit that was upon him and gave it unto the seventy elders.  These two verses show that both Moses and the seventy elders were indwelt for the tasks they were to do.
          Other  passages include Numbers 27:18 concerning Joshua; Judges 3:10 in connection with Othniel; Judges 6:34 regarding Gideon; and Judges 11:29 about Jephthah.  Several passages speak of  Samson being filled with the Spirit such as Judges 13:25; 14:6, 19; and 15:14.  In Judges 4:4ff., possibly Deborah  was so filled.  Saul is shown to be filled in 1 Samuel 10:9, 10 while David is in 1 Samuel 16:13.  Daniel is spoken of  as being filled in Daniel 4:8; 5:11-14; and 6:3. Doubtlessly, there are many others.
          The features of  this indwelling show that it was not necessarily related to the spirituality of  the person.  Regeneration is never spoken of  in connection with the individual, though it must be noted all were Israelites.  Certainly, the individual's walk spiritually speaking was not always the best (Re:  Samson).  This indwelling was not a universal privilege, but a temporary bestowment of  the Holy Spirit.  The Old Testament saint knew that this gift could be withdrawn.  Psalm 51:11 states, "Cast me not away from Thy presence; and take not Thy Holy Spirit from me."  That prayer, though appropriate for David, need never be prayed by Christians.  The permanent indwelling of the Holy Spirit in the believer was still future Walvoord concluded, "The presence of  the indwelling Spirit in the Old Testament must, therefore, be regarded as sovereign, a rare  rather than an usual gift, and often [and this writer would add always] associated with some specific task for which enablement was necessary." (Ibid., 73)
     c. The restraining of  sin by the Holy Spirit.  Although this work will be discussed with regard to the New Testament, John 16:8-11 and 2 Thessalonians 2:7 clearly indicate that this restraining work is the Holy Spirit's.  Genesis 6:3 shows the striving of  the Spirit against man's sinful condition.  It also shows, incidentally, the grace of  God in giving mankind 120 more years before judgment came.  Various works and nature show that the restrainer is the Holy Spirit.  By virtue of  the fact that He is the Holy Spirit indicates that He restrains sin.  In the process of  revealing the will of  God and warning of judgment, restraint is implied.  He is also called the Good Spirit which by the virtue of  the meaning of  that term implies restraint.  In Isaiah 63:10,11 the prophet by inspiration shows that judgment came because the nation Israel had rebelled against the Holy Spirit which was both rejection of  His person and His restraining work.
     d. The illumination and enablement of  the Holy Spirit.  This topic has already been considered in part in discussing the indwelling of  the Holy Spirit.  The web page on illumination covered this subject more fully.
          There are numerous cases where the gift of  wisdom was supplied by the Holy Spirit.  It was generally for leadership and administration; it was objective and specific rather than subjective and universal.  Some of  the people who received this gift of  wisdom included Joseph--Genesis 41:38-40; Joshua--Numbers 27:18; Othniel--Judges 3:10; Gideon--Judges 6:34; Jephathah--Judges 11:29; Saul--1 Samuel 10:10; and David--1 Samuel 16:13.  Others could doubtlessly be cited.
          The gift of  special skills had to do with the Holy Spirit giving special expertise in various crafts.  Such people were the tailors who made the priestly garments--Exodus 28:3 and the workmen who built the tabernacle--Exodus 31:3; 35:30-35.  As was indicated previously, this enablement did not preclude natural ability (which, incidentally, is God-given), but it was enhanced and energized for a task of  superhuman proportions.
          The gift of  unusual  physical strength seems to have been exclusively Samson's.  The verses involved are Judges 13;25; 14:6, 19; and 15:14.  Because of  persistent sin, he lost that gift; it should be noted that the cutting of  his hair was not the cause of his loss of  strength, but rather the departing of  the Spirit from him (Cf. Judges16:20).  Then, it may be asked, what had the cutting of  his hair to do with it?  It was the symbol of  his nazarite vow which he broke by his sin.  
          By far the most important work of  the Holy Spirit was the gift of  revelation and inspiration. This matter has already been discussed in some detail.  The gift of  revelation was  the oral giving of  truth to a person and was the work of  the Holy Spirit in a prophet to speak forth what was revealed to him.  This work of  enabling covered both the telling forth the message for the need of  the time and the foretelling of  future events and happenings.  The gift of  inspiration enabled the person receiving revelation to write it down accurately so we could have the Old Testament.
          The last main gift of  the Holy Spirit was the gift of  miracles.  Moses, Elijah, and Elisha were the three great miracle men in the Old Testament.  This does not, of  course, preclude others, but these three were the most prominent.  There is no clear reference to show that the Holy Spirit was the One working the miracles.  As one writer well wrote, "The power which effects  miracles is usually said to be Jehovah, without distinction as to the persons of  the Godhead." (Walvoord, Op. cit., 76)  Again, various works of  the Holy Spirit show Him to be the agent of  miracles:  His work in creation and His work in providential care, both of  which show His work involved the physical realm.  The immanence of  the Holy Spirit, discussed previously, is more prominent than the other two Persons of  the Godhead.  It was men filled with the Spirit that performed miracles.  All in all, it should be clear that the Holy Spirit is the direct Agent of  the Godhead when dealing with mankind.

      The relation of the Holy Spirit to the Lord Jesus Christ will be considered on the next web page.


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